USEFUL FOR ALL TEACHERS :- SAMANY BIMARI MA KAI AUSHDHIY VANASPATI NO UPYOG KARVO TENI MAHITI
- Vanaspati is the Sanskrit word that now refers to the entire plant kingdom. However, according to Charaka Samhitā and Sushruta Samhita medical texts and the Vaisesikas school of philosophy, "vanaspati" is limited to plants that bear fruits but no evident flowers.
- In the Rigveda, 9th Mandala, Hymn 5.10, "Vanaspati" (literally meaning: Lord of the Forest) is a deity presiding over the forest and described as the "bright golden hued Vanaspati, with its thousand branches."
- Charaka Samhitā and Sushruta Samhita medicine texts classify plants into Vanaspati, Vrksa or vanaspatya, Virudh and Osadhi.
- This second Susruta subdivides Virudhs into pratanavatya (creepers with spreading stem on the grounds) and gulminya (succulent herbs), whereas the first Charaka subdivides Virudhs into lata (creeper), gulma and osadhis into annuals or perennials bearing fruits and grasses which go without fruits. These are further divided into 50 groups based on their physiological actions and diseases they cure.
- Flowering plants are divided into sukadhanya (cereals), samidhanya (pulses), saka varga (pot herbs), phala varga (fruits), harita varga (vegetable), ahayogi varga (oils), and iksu varga (sugarcane).
- The Vaisesikas school of philosophy classify plants under seven heads, e.g. Vrksa, Trna, Osadhi, Gulma, Lata, Avatana and Vanaspati.
- Defining the characteristics of the various groups Udayana's Kiranavali, remarks that:
- Vrksas are plants with trunk, branches, flowers and fruits;Trnas are exemplified by ulupa like plant;Osadhis are plants like kaluma.
- which die after fruition;Gulmas are plant like bhata,Latas are represented by kusmanda, a species of Cucurbita;Avatanas are plants like ketaki;i andVanaspatis are trees which produce fruits without flowers.